Field margins are generally the least productive areas of a field and just a 1-metre grass strip between the outer edge of the hedge and the crop edge can benefit wildlife in many ways.
Beetle banks are grass mounds, about 2 metres wide, that run the length of large arable fields, cutting right across the middle. They can start 20 metres out from the field edge at each end so that a field can still be farmed as one unit.
Conservation headlands are headlands of cereal crops that are sprayed selectively to allow small populations of broad-leaved weeds and their associated insects to develop. Headlands should be chosen carefully to avoid encouraging a flush of highly competitive weeds.
As well as providing valuable wetland habitat that benefits a variety of wildlife, drainage channels can be important corridors that allow species to move through the countryside.
Extensively grazed grassland creates a diverse sward structure, rich in plants and invertebrates and beneficial to a variety of birds.
In grassland systems, grass and broad-leaved plants that are allowed to go to seed and develop a structure that can be used by nesting birds and large, long-lived insects are particularly valuable.
Sensitive management and replanting of woodland and scattered trees can benefit certain birds in the uplands. Find out more.
The flower-rich hay meadow is now a rare and important habitat. The hay meadows that are best for wildlife are the product of traditional, low intensity farming. During June and July, the bright and varied colours in these meadows are very attractive and many people enjoy them.
Nectar flower mixtures provide flowers throughout spring and summer to supply food for insects such as butterflies and bumblebees.
Scrub is an important wildlife habitat, whether it is a few isolated shrubs or young trees, or a dense thicket. It is a natural part of other habitats, such as grassland and woodland, and an important component of the landscape.
Wild bird seed mixtures provide vital food for seed-eating birds throughout winter. They are particularly important in areas where traditional food sources, such as weedy stubble and cereals fed to outdoor stock, are no longer available.
Farm buildings can provide nesting sites for a variety of birds, including barn owls, kestrels, swallows, house martins, spotted flycatchers, starlings and sparrows, and roosting sites for bats. However, birds should be excluded from food storage areas wherever possible. Otherwise, good housekeeping and hygiene measures should reduce the attraction of birds and other unwanted pests.
Two small skylark plots per hectare in winter cereals can increase skylark productivity by 50% and could reverse the decline of skylarks if enough farmers take this option up. They may also benefit yellow wagtails nesting in arable areas.
Photovoltaic (PV) arrays offer an opportunity to provide significant wildlife gains as well as benefits to the farmed environment, due to the extent of 'unusable area' between panels and in borders to the installation.