Chapel Wood RSPB reserve, Devon, England, aerial view


The new planning system offers real potential to support the restoration and recreation of wildlife habitats.

Why is planning important?

England's planning system plays a little-seen but extremely important role in protecting wildlife whilst allowing the houses and business that we need.

From local parks to internationally important estuaries, the planning system directs development away from these important places to less-damaging locations.

Brading marshes RSPB reserve, Ryde, Isle of Wight, UK

The reform of the English planning system

Soon after it came to power, the Coalition Government set about radically reforming England's planning system. 

The changes proved controversial, and throughout 2011 and the into the early part of 2012, along with many other nature conservation charities, we called for the Government to alter their approach.

There have been two main elements to the reforms. The first is the Localism Act – a lengthy piece of legislation which includes the abolition of regional governance and the introduction of neighbourhood planning.

When the Act was still a Bill, we worked closely with other organisations to try and ensure the resulting system acts in the best interests of communities and wildlife.

Most of the controversy however, focused on the second component of the reforms – the National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) – which was published in March 2012. This condenses more than 1,000 pages of national government planning policy with one 50-page document.

 Leighton Moss and Morecambe Bay RSPB reserve, aerial view Leighton Moss and Morecambe Bay RSPB reserve, aerial view

Why was the draft NPPF controversial?

When the draft document was published for public consultation in summer 2011 we, like many other environmental organisations, had serious concerns.

Our primary concern was that the draft NPPF as it stood would weaken protection for much of England's wildlife. Whilst it contained welcome environmental policies, these were undermined by an important clause called the 'presumption in favour of sustainable development'.

This presumption could make it more difficult for local authorities to reject applications that damage all but the most highly protected wildlife sites.

Old Hall Marshes RSPB reserve, hoar frost and frozen marsh at dawn

What action did we take?

We called on government to change its approach to planning reform.

On the Localism Bill we worked with a range of other organisations to persuade MPs and Peers to take action to ensure a positive outcome.

From the publication of the draft NPPF in summer 2011 to the publication of the final version in March 2012, we actively campaigned for major amendments.

We insisted that the planning system must continue to protect wildlife, and to go beyond that by requiring local authorities to work with partners (such as ourselves) to restore vital wildlife habitats.

What do we think of the new planning system?

The new English planning system is very different to the one it has replaced. The changes will take a while to settle in at a local level and only then will we know the real impact.

Through the Localism Act, regional planning, which helped local authorities work together on 'larger than local' challenges, has been scrapped. In its place the Act introduces a Duty to Co-operate, which requires local authorities to work together on key issues. We worked closely with other environmental organisations to improve the ways in which this new duty works.

The Localism Act also gives us neighbourhood planning – a new form of community-level planning.

On the once-controversial National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) it is clear that government listened. All of our key concerns were addressed in the final document. Arguably the natural environment policies are actually an improvement on previous government policy. A huge thanks to all those members and supporters who took action demanding change to the NPPF – it really did work.

A shift in focus

Success will now depend on how all these changes are put into practice at a more local level. For example, will local interpretation of the new NPPF prevent damage to our most important wildlife sites, or will political rhetoric swing the balance too far in favour of damaging developments?

The new planning system offers real potential to support the restoration and recreation of wildlife habitats. We will be working with local authorities to help put these policies into practice so there are more special places for wildlife and people to enjoy.

A patch of gorse: habitat of Cirl bunting Emberiza cirlus. Labrador Bay, Devon, England.


The RSPB's response to the consultation. PDF, 827Kb.

RSPB response to the draft NPPF consultation

This document details the track changes to the draft. PDF, 312Kb.

RSPB track changes to the draft NPPF

RSPB view: the final National Planning Policy Framework. PDF, 471Kb.

RSPB briefing on NPPF April 2012

The Future of the Planning System in England. PDF, 110Kb.

The future of planning

Summary of the research project. PDF, 487Kb.

Third party rights of appeal in planning