How to identify

Sand Martins are the smallest European hirundines (the collective name for martins and swallows). They have dark brown upper parts and dark under wings, contrasting with pale under parts divided by a distinctive dark chest stripe. They are agile fliers, feeding mainly over water. Look out for them perching on overhead wires or branches. They are sociable in the breeding season and winter. During the past 50 years the European population has crashed on two occasions as a result of drought in the birds' African wintering grounds.


Sand Martin

Patrik Åberg / xeno-canto


  1. Resident
  2. Passage
  3. Summer
  4. Winter
* This map is intended as a guide. It shows general distribution rather than detailed, localised populations.
  1. Jan
  2. Feb
  3. Mar
  4. Apr
  5. May
  6. Jun
  7. Jul
  8. Aug
  9. Sep
  10. Oct
  11. Nov
  12. Dec

Key facts

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